Friday, November 21, 2008

Languages of various countries

Afghanistan
Dari Persian, Pashtu (both official), other Turkic and minor languages
Albania
Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Algeria
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Andorra
Catalán (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Antigua and Barbuda
English (official), local dialects
Argentina
Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Armenia
Armenian 98%, Yezidi, Russian
Australia
English 79%, native and other languages
Austria
German (official nationwide); Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian (each official in one region)
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani Turkic 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Bahamas
English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahrain
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bangladesh
Bangla (official), English
Barbados
English
Belarus
Belorussian (White Russian), Russian, other
Belgium
Dutch (Flemish) 60%, French 40%, German less than 1% (all official)
Belize
English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Benin
French (official), Fon, Yoruba, tribal languages
Bhutan
Dzongkha (official), Tibetan dialects (among Bhotes), Nepalese dialects (among Nepalese)
Bolivia
Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Botswana
English 2% (official), Setswana 78%, Kalanga 8%, Sekgalagadi 3%, other (2001)
Brazil
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Brunei
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Bulgaria
Bulgarian 85%, Turkish 10%, Roma 4%
Burkina Faso
French (official); native African (Sudanic) languages 90%
Burundi
Kirundi and French (official), Swahili
Cambodia
Khmer 95% (official), French, English
Cameroon
French, English (both official); 24 major African language groups
Canada
English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%
Cape Verde
Portuguese, Criuolo
Central African Republic
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca, national), tribal languages
Chad
French, Arabic (both official); Sara; more than 120 languages and dialects
Chile
Spanish
China
Standard Chinese (Mandarin/Putonghua), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
Colombia
Spanish
Comoros
Arabic and French (both official), Shikomoro (Swahili/Arabic blend)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
French (official), Lingala, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo, Republic of
French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, Kikongo, many local languages and dialects
Costa Rica
Spanish (official), English
Côte d'Ivoire
French (official) and African languages (Dioula esp.)
Croatia
Croatian 96% (official), other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German)
Cuba
Spanish
Cyprus
Greek, Turkish (both official); English
Czech Republic
Czech
Denmark
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), German; English is the predominant second language
Djibouti
French and Arabic (both official), Somali, Afar
Dominica
English (official) and French patois
Dominican Republic
Spanish
East Timor
Tetum, Portuguese (official); Bahasa Indonesia, English; other indigenous languages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak
Ecuador
Spanish (official), Quechua, other Amerindian languages
Egypt
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
El Salvador
Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial Guinea
Spanish, French (both official); pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Eritrea
Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Estonia
Estonian 67% (official), Russian 30%, other (2000)
Ethiopia
Amharic, Tigrigna, Orominga, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English, over 70 others
Fiji
English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Finland
Finnish 92%, Swedish 6% (both official); small Sami- (Lapp) and Russian-speaking minorities
France
French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Gabon
French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambia
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
Georgia
Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, other 7% (Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia)
Germany
German
Ghana
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Greece
Greek 99% (official), English, French
Grenada
English (official), French patois
Guatemala
Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Guinea
French (official), native tongues (Malinké, Susu, Fulani)
Guinea-Bissau
Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages
Guyana
English (official), Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Haiti
Creole and French (both official)
Honduras
Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects; English widely spoken in business
Hungary
Magyar (Hungarian) 94%, other 6%
Iceland
Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
India
Hindi 30%, English, Bengali, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Kannada, Assamese, Sanskrit, Sindhi (all official); Hindi/Urdu; 1,600+ dialects
Indonesia
Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch, Javanese, and more than 580 other languages and dialects
Iran
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Iraq
Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland
English, Irish (Gaelic) (both official)
Israel
Hebrew (official), Arabic, English
Italy
Italian (official); German-, French-, and Slovene-speaking minorities
Jamaica
English, Jamaican Creole
Japan
Japanese
Jordan
Arabic (official), English
Kazakhstan
Kazak (Qazaq, state language) 64%; Russian (official, used in everyday business) 95% (2001 est.)
Kenya
English (official), Swahili (national), and numerous indigenous languages
Kiribati
English (official), I-Kiribati (Gilbertese)
Korea, North
Korean
Korea, South
Korean, English widely taught
Kuwait
Arabic (official), English
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz, Russian (both official)
Laos
Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages
Latvia
Latvian 58% (official), Russian 38%, Lithuanian, other (2000)
Lebanon
Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Lesotho
English, Sesotho (both official); Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia
English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic-group languages
Libya
Arabic, Italian, and English widely understood in major cities
Liechtenstein
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Lithuania
Lithuanian 82% (official), Russian 8%, Polish 6% (2001)
Luxembourg
Luxermbourgish (national) French, German (both administrative)
Macedonia
Macedonian 67%, Albanian 25% (both official); Turkish 4%, Roma 2%, Serbian 1% (2002)
Madagascar
Malagasy and French (both official)
Malawi
Chichewa 57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%, Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998)
Malaysia
Bahasa Melayu (Malay, official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; several indigenous languages (including Iban, Kadazan) in East Malaysia
Maldives
Maldivian Dhivehi (official); English spoken by most government officials
Mali
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Malta
Maltese and English (both official)
Marshall Islands
Marshallese 98% (two major dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family), English widely spoken as a second language (both official); Japanese
Mauritania
Hassaniya Arabic (official), Pulaar, Soninke, French, Wolof
Mauritius
English less than 1% (official), Creole 81%, Bojpoori 12%, French 3% (2000)
Mexico
Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Micronesia
English (official, common), Chukese, Pohnpeian, Yapase, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova
Moldovan (official; virtually the same as Romanian), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Monaco
French (official), English, Italian, Monégasque
Mongolia
Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Montenegro
Serbian/Montenegrin (Ijekavian dialect—official)
Morocco
Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often used for business, government, and diplomacy
Mozambique
Portuguese 9% (official; second language of 27%), Emakhuwa 26%, Xichangana 11%, Elomwe 8%, Cisena 7%, Echuwabo 6%, other Mozambican languages 32% (1997)
Myanmar
Burmese, minority languages
Namibia
English 7% (official), Afrikaans is common language of most of the population and of about 60% of the white population, German 32%; indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama
Nauru
Nauruan (official), English
Nepal
Nepali 48% (official), Maithali 12%, Bhojpuri 7%, Tharu 6%, Tamang 5%, others. English spoken by many in government and business (2001)
Netherlands
Dutch, Frisian (both official)
New Zealand
English, Maori (both official)
Nicaragua
Spanish 98% (official); English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast (1995)
Niger
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and more than 200 others
Norway
Bokmål Norwegian, Nynorsk Norwegian (both official); small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities (Sami is official in six municipalities)
Oman
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Pakistan
Urdu 8%, English (both official); Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, Burushaski, and others 8%
Palau
Palauan 64.7%, English 9.4%, Sonsoralese, Tobi, Angaur (each official on some islands), Filipino 13.5%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%, other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5% (2000)
Palestinian State (proposed)
Arabic, Hebrew, English
Panama
Spanish (official), English 14%, many bilingual
Papua New Guinea
Tok Pisin (Melanesian Pidgin, the lingua franca), Hiri Motu (in Papua region), English 1%–2%; 715 indigenous languages
Paraguay
Spanish, Guaraní (both official)
Peru
Spanish, Quéchua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages
Philippines
Filipino (based on Tagalog), English (both official); eight major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Poland
Polish 98% (2002)
Portugal
Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Qatar
Arabic (official); English a common second language
Romania
Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Russia
Russian, others
Rwanda
Kinyarwanda, French, and English (all official); Kiswahili in commercial centers
St. Kitts and Nevis
English
St. Lucia
English (official), French patois
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
English, French patois
Samoa
Samoan, English
San Marino
Italian
São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese (official)
Saudi Arabia
Arabic
Senegal
French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Serbia
Serbian (official); Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Croatian (all official in Vojvodina); Albanian (official in Kosovo)
Seychelles
Seselwa Creole 92%, English 5%, French (all official) (2002)
Sierra Leone
English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca)
Singapore
Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000)
Slovakia
Slovak 84% (official), Hungarian 11%, Roma 2%, Ukrainian 1% (2001)
Slovenia
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 5% (2002)
Solomon Islands
English 1%–2% (official), Melanesian pidgin (lingua franca), 120 indigenous languages
Somalia
Somali (official), Arabic, English, Italian
South Africa
IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001)
Spain
Castilian Spanish 74% (official nationwide); Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (each official regionally)
Sri Lanka
Sinhala 74% (official and national), Tamil 18% (national), other 8%; English is commonly used in government and spoken competently by about 10%
Sudan
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
Suriname
Dutch (official), Surinamese (lingua franca), English widely spoken, Hindustani, Javanese
Swaziland
English, siSwati (both official)
Sweden
Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Switzerland
German 64%, French 20%, Italian 7% (all official); Romansch 0.5% (national)
Syria
Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Taiwan
Chinese (Mandarin, official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Tajikistan
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Tanzania
Swahili, English (both official); Arabic; many local languages
Thailand
Thai (Siamese), English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Togo
French (official, commerce); Ewé, Mina (south); Kabyé, Dagomba (north); and many dialects
Tonga
Tongan (an Austronesian language), English
Trinidad and Tobago
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Tunisia
Arabic (official, commerce), French (commerce)
Turkey
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli, Azeri, Kabardian
Turkmenistan
Turkmen 72%; Russian 12%; Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Tuvalu
Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Uganda
English (official), Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Ukraine
Ukrainian 67%, Russian 24%, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
United Arab Emirates
Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
United Kingdom
English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
United States
English 82%, Spanish 11% (2000)
Uruguay
Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero
Uzbekistan
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Vanuatu
Bislama 23% (a Melanesian pidgin English), English 2%, French 1% (all 3 official); more than 100 local languages 73%
Vatican City (Holy See)
Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Venezuela
Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Vietnam
Vietnamese (official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Western Sahara (proposed state)
Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Yemen
Arabic
Zambia
English (official); major vernaculars: Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga; about 70 other indigenous languages
Zimbabwe
English (official), Shona, Ndebele (Sindebele), numerous minor tribal dialects

1 comment:

Brian Barker said...

I think that the rights of minority languages need protection.

The promulgation of English as the world's “lingua franca” is unethical and linguistically undemocratic. I say this as a native English speaker!

Unethical because communication should be for all and not only for an educational or political elite. That is how English is used internationally at the moment.

Undemocratic because minority languages are under attack worldwide due to the encroachment of majority ethnic languages. Even Mandarin Chinese is attempting to dominate as well. The long-term solution must be found and a non-national language, which places all ethnic languages on an equal footing is long overdue.

An interesting video can be seen at http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=_YHALnLV9XU Professor Piron was formerly a translator with the United Nations.

A glimpse of Esperanto can be seen at http://www.lernu.net